عوامل اجتماعی و انگیزشی موثر بر میزان تعهد داوطلبان شرکت کننده در رویدادهای ورزشی

    مديريت منابع انساني به عنوان بخش مهمی از فرایند مدیریت رویدادهای ورزشی توجه خاصی به شيوة به کارگيري داوطلبان، حفظ و نگهداري آنها دارد. شناخت ويژگي های فردی و انگيزه هاي داوطلبان، حائز اهمیت است، زيرا اين انگيزه ها زيربناي مشارکت و تعهد آنها را در يک محيط ورزشي مي سازد. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی عوامل اجتماعی و انگیزشی موثر بر تعهد داوطلبان شرکت کننده در رویدادهای ورزشی بود. تحقیق از نوع توصیفی بود و به روش زمینه یابی انجام شد. 281 داوطلب شرکت کننده در رویدادهای ورزشی به پرسشنامه های محقق ساخته تعهد سازمانی، انگیزش و مشخصات فردی پاسخ دادند. نتايج تحقيق نشان داد؛ 64 درصد داوطلبان زن و 36 درصد مرد با ميانگين سنی 21/24 سال بودند.99% دانشجوی تربیت بدنی، 71 مجرد، 53% بدون شغل ثابت و با ميانگين 5 سال تجربه ورزشی بودند. مهمترين انگيزه مشارکت آنها عامل شغلی و مهمترين عامل تعهدی، عامل هنجاری شناخته شد. سن، تجربیات ورزشی و تحصيلات بر ميزان تعهد داوطلبان موثر بودند. عوامل انگيزشی شغلی، مادی، هدفمندی و حمايتی توان پيش بينی ميزان تعهد داوطلبان ورزشی را داشتند. بنابراين، تسهيل فرصت هاي ممکن براي داوطلبان  و برگزاری دوره های آموزشی مناسب توسط مدیران برگزار کننده رویدادها توصیه می شود.

واژگان کلیدی: داوطلبان ورزشی، انگیزش، تعهد سازمانی، رویداد ورزشی

Farideh Sharififar1, Farideh Ashraf Ganjouie1, Fereidoon Tondnevis2, Ali Zarei1

1 Islamic Azad University, central Tehran branch, Iran

2 Faculty of Physical Education, Tarbiat Moalem University Tehran branch, Iran

 Abstract:

Human resources management gives special attention to method of applying volunteers. Understanding the motives and characteristics of volunteers would enable organizers to successfully recruit and retain volunteers with high commitment. The motivation and commitment of 281 volunteers were assessed using the organizational commitment scale, motivation scale and personal characteristics questionnaire.

     The descriptive results showed that; 64% of volunteers were women with age average 21/24 years old. They were physical education student, single (71/9%), without occupation (53%) and with average of 5 years sport experience. Their most important motivation was career factor and the most important commitment factor was normative factor. The results of examining the hypothesized showed that; age, sport experience and education are effective in the amount of volunteers’ commitment. And the motive factors such as career, material, purposive and protective factors also have the power to predict the amount of sports volunteers’ commitment value. Therefore it is recommended to provide possible opportunities for volunteers and carrying out appropriate instructional courses by events executive managers.

Keywords: sport volunteers, motivation, organizational commitment, sport event.

 Introduction:

At recent sporting events,volunteers are a critical part of the overall success of the events (Williams, Dossa and Tompkins, 1995) (17). Employment of volunteers as an important part of sport organizations is a part of sport event management process and, regardless of its extent and nature, is an essential affair to success at all of sport events. Volunteer participation at sports events due to not receiving wages, has much importance and allows administrators as with less cost payment develop the quality and variety of services. In the sport industry, the importance of volunteerism has been raised in economic aspects. At the year of 2000 the economic value of voluntary services in Australia were estimated equal to 24-31 billion dollars per year and in Canada  was more than 17 billion Canadian dollars (1). The economic value of sport volunteers in England was 14 billion pounds (27) and in America, it was estimated over the 200 billion dollars (31). Although these information are indicate of the amount and extension of volunteer work, but little attention have been paid to detect their nature and important consequences of those efforts.

   Besides the economical value, social advantages such as social society, integration and harmony of community that is due to volunteer activities also have been considered by researchers. At recent years, some national governments with realizing the importance of social society and civil community training, have inferred that they cannot and must not serve all of services related to republic and in addition, citizens’ participation at most of service provisions has much importance(1).

   Research review in relation to volunteer motives suggests that person stimulus to contribute in activities were various and also is varying in time, and there is not definitive answer to this question that which motives  and  what inner forces excite persons to volunteer and  lead them to unpaid and without priced activities. But most of researchers have agreement in this concern that these motives are multidimensional and several factors play effective role to excite volunteer. According to Clary and colleagues (1996), motivational factors such as; social, traditional, occupational, perception and mutual understanding, promotion and protection are the most important factors. They had believed that though person may do similar activities, their objects at extended level can be different with each other (6). Nevertheless, sport volunteer motives and experiences may vary with regard to population and situational characteristics also accordance to opportunities features, for instance season employment or a great and special sport event (22).

    While these viewpoints indicate the complexity of this field, it must establish comprehensive perception about voluntary behavior to meet management needs about labor and facilities security, keeping conditions and performing customized acts effectively (16).  According to Doherty (2005), the most important reason for volunteer participation is altruistic motives and the factors as individual needs and interests are the next incentives (10). Daitch and colleagues (2005) found helping the others, purposive and leisure time as motivations with high importance (9). Giaimoulakis and Wang (2008), mentioned external effects and purposive the most important volunteer motives (15). Han (2007) found that the most important motive that influences involvement in volunteer services appears to be related to the egoistic factor (17). Fairlly and colleagues (2007), specify four factors as volunteer motivational factors; civism, unanimity and fellowship, to join with Olympic and respect (13). Khoo (2008) also found the most important motivational factor is social opportunity (23). In addition, Twynam and colleagues (2003) found the motives of special events volunteer are different from another volunteer and concentrate on a particular goal and result (30).

   The better understanding of volunteer motives by sports events organizers results to enhance their satisfaction (14) and consequently leads to commitment which is defined as relevancy to organization and its goals (30). Similarly, the volunteers who support an action and event may have strong commitment feeling for innumerable reasons. They may feel that what they do give them chance to interaction with the others.  Also exists the responsibility to task and job or occupation and, May there is moral obligation to other people believes and values and to organization values as a whole. The volunteer participation and commitment in the event is touched of their motives at the volunteering.

   Dorsch (2002), found five main factors; satisfaction from organization efficiency, enough knowledge about organization, psychic confidence and safety seeking, recognition and acceptance personally role are effective in implying volunteer to accomplish their own commitments (11). According to Hsieh (2000), demographics characteristics, household income, age and education as well as volunteer satisfaction of organization are the best anticipator factors that account for volunteer commitment (19). Cunningham and Sagas (2004) found the age, gender and social obligations have negative influence on the occupational commitment (8). Unlike them, Turner and Chelladurai (2005) found some of the social factors such as gender and lifestyle haven’t any effect on the organizational and occupational commitments (29).

   Investigations are suggestive to this point that motivational variables and social factors in different way, separately or combinational are effective on commitment amount. Some of these factors can be intermediate among other variables. The events celebrants must be sure that volunteers are capable of performing assigned tasks and more importantly they must be obligated to continue cooperation until the end of events, because volunteering is a free and arbitrary activity and personal responsibilities as well as family and occupational commitments can vary. Today modern lives pressures, makes weak primary motive to volunteer and continuing participation, and breeds questions like this: What people motives are for allocate their time and skills to aid to others? What factors influence on continuing the voluntary and person commitments? Whether different motivational factors create different commitment amount?

   It has been given less attention to the voluntary part in Iran and almost it occupies interruptedly by different parts administrators. The volunteer commitment amount and motivational factors which influence on it play an important role at required solution of sports managers to apply and keep effective voluntary force and also to create required conditions for maximizing volunteer efficiency and sports events success.

   Therefore, with due to operational role of this research at developing and improve managers and executors operation and its role at propelling sports human resources management towards a scientific management, it is very important to consider it in order to acquire success in the field of carrying out national and international events and it can give novel information to events celebrant managers and administrators till in case of applying required right elements they will can reach more quickly and harmonically to their goals that indeed is attaining to successfully accomplishment sport events.

 Methods:

   This research was designed as a non-experimental cross-sectional descriptive and completed by survey method. The participants were volunteers in Iran championship leagues in February and March 2010. A total of 281 volunteers returned the questionnaire. This represents 93.6% of the volunteers who were involved in the Games.

   Regarding to research nature, tools of data gathering were three questionnaires; demographic characteristics, motivational and commitment factors. These questionnaires were prepared by the researcher and based on literature review and standardized. Demographic characteristics questionnaire with 19 questions measures the age, gender, marital status, occupation, income, sport experiences and education. In order to study motivational factors the 34- questioned ascertained questionnaire was used. The present questionnaire is made up of six factors; career, material, protective, achievement, social opportunity and purposive. In order to measure sport volunteer commitment, 22-questioned questionnaire was used. The present questionnaire is made up of four factors: affective, normative, continuance-high sacrifice (CC:HiSac) and continuance-low number of alternatives (CC:LoAlt). Responses to the questions were graded using a five-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). The reliability estimates (Cronbach`s alpha) for the four bases of commitment are 89% and the volunteer motivation by five dimensions are 88%.

   At primary study and in order to determine reliability, the questionnaire was distributed among 30 volunteers of a sport event and then was collected. For the sake of retest, the same volunteer after a month again answered to the questionnaires (test-retest). The questionnaires had reasonable reliability (80%, 75 %), hence was used at this study.  Other than that, with dividing the tests in 2 parts ratio of alpha was 88% (Motivation) and 89% (Commitment) and after Pierson modification method the gained value was equal to 90% and 93% which show the stability of the tests.

   Utilized method for measuring frequencies, means, percents, and standard deviations was descriptive statistics. The skewness and kurtosis were examined to determine whether the observed variables were normally distributed. All skewness and kurtosis values ranged from -0.58 to 0.47. It was assumed that all variables in the data set achieved multivariate normality. To predict the proportion and role of predictive variables in basic variable, the single and multiple regressions was used by synchronous entry method.

 Results:

   Based on results, 64% of volunteer were women. The average of volunteers age were 21/24 years old with standard deviation of 5/03. 71/9 % of volunteers were single and 53% of them were unemployment. The average of volunteer sport experience was obtained 5 years. The volunteers mentioned the career motivation and normative commitment as the most important motivation and commitment factors.

   Table1 shows research hypothesized based on existence of volunteer commitment predictive power are confirming via age at level p=0.001 within β=0.21 and education (t=3.46, p=0.001). Also there are purposive at level p=0.005 within β=0.28 and protective at level p=0.001 within β=0.32.

Table1. Coefficient of regression and value related to prediction of volunteer commitment via social and motivational factors.

Predicted Predictor variable

B -coefficient

β- coefficient

t -value

p

volunteer commitment

Demographic characteristics

age

0.18

0.21

3.24

0.001

educate

-

-

3.46

0.001

Motivational factors

protective

0.793

0.32

3.33

0.001

purposive

1.023

0.28

2.81

0.005

    Also in accordance with table 2, the results of examining the researcher hypothesized based on existence the predictive power via motivation subscales show that there are material subscales at level p=0.03 within β=0.16 and protective at level p=0.001 within β=0.31 that have power to predict the affective commitment factor. The purposive subscales at level p=0.1 within β=0.36 and career at level p=0.001 within β=0.26 have predictive power for normative commitment factor and protective subscales at level p=0.006 within β=0.26 have power to predict the continuance-high sacrifice and material subscales at level p=0.04 within β=0.15 have predictive power to continuance-low number of alternatives.

Table2. Coefficients of regression related to prediction of volunteer commitment scales via motivational subscales.

Commitment predicted subscales

Motivation predictor subscales

B – coefficient

β- coefficient

t

Sig

Affective

Material

1.24

0.16

2.12

0.03

Protective

0.24

0.31

3.26

0.001

Normative

Career

0.26

0.26

4.31

0.001

Purposive

0.53

0.36

2.52

0.01

continuance-high sacrifice

Supportive

0.17

0.26

2.77

0.006

continuance-low number of alternatives

Material

0.11

0.15

2.04

0.04

Discussion:

   The research findings showed that there is predictive power for volunteer commitment via age and illustrate that the age have positive effect on obligation value, as with increase in age the obligation value increase too, and it is consistent with Andam (2008), Han (2007), Dorsch (2002) and Hsieh (2000) researches, but is inconsistent with Cunningham and Sagas (2004) and Doherty (2005), based on this point that the age have no effect on commitment. This study has been performed among the students and this result to low age of volunteer. Sport is an area where have much more attractiveness for young volunteer. To volunteer means to produce social capital. Therefore, sport organizes have important role in social capital production and much interaction must be performed. With respect to the results of this research, it appears that codifying the instructional program with regard to the age and youthfulness needs and their interests and motives must be done in order to increase the volunteers’ capability.

   There was predictive power to predict the volunteer commitment amount via educating and is expressive of educational stand effect on people obligation value and was consistent with Chen (2009), Han (2007), Andam (2008), Hoye and Kusklly (2006), Doherty (2005), Dorsch (2002), and Hsieh (2001), studies based on increasing the people commitment by increase at academic educational stand. The research showed that students do voluntary activities because relates lecture theories and comments to exercise and practical activity. Moreover, Han (2004) stated that many of young students due to needs of voluntary activities benefits volunteer at sport competitions (17). According to previous studies, it is being said that factors such as prize, facilities and competition position influence students who take part in competition. From previous studies results and this research appears that high level education create new approach that help to society and social task.

   There is predictive power of commitment amount via motivational factor. The motivational factors are effective in commitment and the commitment amount increases with interestedness and tendency increase. Consideration effective motivational factors in commitment was characterized that career, material, protective and purposive factors have positive relation with commitment amount. The career factor is consistent with study results of some researchers as Mead (2009), Han (2007), Casper (2007) and Coyne (2001) who have indicated profession factor or professional abilities in motives identification. With respect to this point that volunteer’s commitment had expressive and positive relation with career factor appears that universities administrators and sport events celebrant must carry out appropriate instructional courses for students until they participate at activities with more incentive and through experiencing varying occupations achieve to their desirable occupation.

   The results of this study with regard to material factor effect on volunteer commitment amount are consistent with study results of Han (2007) and Pi (2001) .In view of the fact that material factor in students opinion at the present study weren’t non-significant, administrators and celebrant executors must give attention to it and taking into account welfare facilities and another material factors as an effective incentive on commitment and must effort for attraction and keeping volunteers.

Another impressive factor is purposive that point out to volunteer tendency for worthful help to organization and society and getting success at one event, which is consistent with researches of: Khoo (2008), Andam (2008), Twynam (2003), Strigas and Jackson (2003) and Johnston (1999), based on aiding to an event success. Just as Reeser (2005) that people proceed at voluntary activity for doing a worthful work (26).

   The present research results confirm protective factor effect on volunteer commitment and are consistent with Allen and colleagues (2009), Khoo (2008), Casper (2007) and Downward and colleagues (2005) studies. Volunteers for escape of daily life and enjoy of sport activities appeal to voluntary work (2). Thus, sport organizations must increase their organization flexibility to enhance self-consequence feeling and independence of volunteers; hereby volunteers can choose their favorite occupations and give diversity to their works. With these conditions they feel that they haven’t waste their time and carry on their activity with more responsibility sense. Second factor is creating the interestedness atmosphere for volunteers perhaps they have more chance to apply their abilities. This matter enhances people participation and self- assurance feeling. Participators will have a good feeling about themselves, this will cause that in addition to works corresponding to their abilities, and they enjoy of doing new activities and developing other abilities and appreciate of this new situation by increasing the commitment amount and doing more activity.

Conclusions:

   Understanding the motivation and commitment of volunteers plays remarkable role to attract and apply a volunteer. Usually this work begins with an effective management and gives volunteers opportunity to feel that are excited, worthy and successful at their roles. Perhaps under different organizational conditions there was need to different volunteer management approaches. However there is not a unique method for this work but the result of these approaches which is creating excited and obligated volunteers is similar. If managers treat volunteers as creative, excited and worthful persons, then volunteers will have occupational satisfaction, high performance and organizational commitment. Therefore, effective management help volunteers to adjust their goals corresponding to organization goals and encourages them to success at proportional assigned works with their tasks, because the voluntary is an exchange between organization and volunteer. An organization looks for volunteers to apply their time, effort and skill. While volunteers look for an opportunity to use of these skills for helping the others, remaining at sport fellowship and acquire some advantages for themselves. When the relation would not be mutual the fellowship will be weaken or volunteer will abandon voluntary.

   Training and absorption of Volunteer force is considered as one of the important marketing challenges. Knowledge of people motives to volunteer and offering free cost services would can help considerably to sport organization with regard to subject of volunteer marketing. To retain and keep undertaking volunteer, the appropriate environmental conditions must be provided because volunteers who support an activity and event may be have obligation feeling with countless reasons. Perhaps they would have felt that what they do give them interaction opportunity with others or create occupational and supportive chances for them. Generally, when volunteers are interested to their activity social milieu, perceive their role and feet that they can play their role well and their volunteering is important for event and can achieve to their motives, they will acquire more commitment.

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 این مقاله در سال 2011 در نشریه ISI زیر چاپ شده است:

Technics Technologies Education Management ,  ISSN: 1840-1503